Book Launch: Homelands and Figures d’Europe
26 January 15.00 Sala Europa, Villa Schifanoia
This book launch will present the main themes of two books from the series Multiple Europes about the construction of political and symbolic space, Homelands. Poetic Power and the Politics of Space and Figures d’Europe. Images and Myths of Europe.
Speakers: Karma Nabulsi (Nuffield College), Nick Lambert (Brussels), Francesca Lacaita (Frankfurt), Luisa Passerini (Essen/Turin), Bo Stråth (Florence)
There will be a cocktail at 18:00 in Sala Bandiere
Homelands (Ron Robin & Bo Stråth, ed.):
This book historically surveys the contested poetics of space and place associated with the term “homeland” in the Middle East, Balkans, Ireland, South Africa and Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These cases of contested homeland discourses are contrasted with a case of noncontention in Sweden. The contributors do not narrate events preceding the conflicts in these divisive areas of the world, they offer and confront representations of homeland from multiple and, at times, unusual perspectives. Ambiguity and variety are one common denominator of this very uncommon collection. These scholarly representations of the homeland are saturated with the contradictions of imagination and culture. They all contain a subtext concerning the role of the nation state and its relationships to multiple understandings of homeland in contemporary global cultures and politics. The different and sometimes incompatible opinions voiced here are bound by a common hope to affect the current discourse on nationalism, community, homeland and exile.
Ron Robin/Bo Stråth: Poetics of Space and Place – Rema Hammami: Gender, Nakbe and Nation: Palestinian Women’s Presence and Absence in the Narration of 1948 Memories – Salim Tamari: Bourgeois Nostalgia and Exilic Narratives – Karma Nabulsi: My Homeland – Issam Nassar: Narrating a Homeland Identity: The Writing of the Histories of Palestinian Nationalism – Ilan Gur Ze’ev: Holocaust/Nakbah as an Israeli/Palestinian Homeland – Fania Oz-Salzberger: Oh, My Land, My Homeland: Origins, Varieties and Fate of Zionist Poetics of Moledet – Maoz Azaryahu: Homelandscapes. Zionist Landscapes of a Hebrew Homeland: Three Cases – Mark Levine: Locating Home: Overthrowing Geography, Misreading Modernity and Other Adventures in the Search of the Routes that Divide Us – Ilan Pappe: The Post-Territorial Dimensions of a Future Homeland in Israel and Palestine – Ron Robin: The Necropolitics of Homeland. The Role of Tombs and Village Cemetries in the Middle East Conflict – Mariangela Veikou: Ambiguous Insiders and the Description of «Homeland»: Belonging in Immigrants’ Ethnic Identity Narratives – Senadin Musabegovic: The Circle and the Present – Heidi Grunebaum/Yazir Henri: Where the Mountain Meets Its Shadow: A Conversation on Memory, Identity, and Fragmented Belonging in Present-Day South Africa – John D. Brewer: Contesting Ulster – Rolf Petri: The Meanings of Heimat (1850-1945) – James Kaye: There’s No Place Like Home – Bo Stråth: Hembygd as a Pragmatic Concept: The Alternative Case.
Figures d’Europe (Luisa Passerini, ed.) In this publication, scholars from various disciplines and from a dozen countries of Europe and other continents intend to make explicit what has remained implicit in the creation or adoption of symbols and myths for a Europe that is under construction. The book is devoted to assessing the supposed «symbolic deficit» of the European Union and of Europe as a whole. It analyses the history and meanings of some of the myths and symbols for Europe today, such as the myth of Europa and the bull, the European hymn and flag, and the representations of the continent. It also explores the meanings that have been attributed to the Euro by both experts and ordinary people; the new coin reminds us of the problematic nature of possible future senses of belonging to Europe, which will require exchanges between different peoples and cultures to give rise to an open and multicultural form of identity.
Contrubutions: Romano Prodi: Préface/Preface – Luisa Passerini: Dimensions of the Symbolic in the Construction of Europeanness – Stuart Hall: «In But Not of Europe»: Europe and Its Myths – Hartmut Kaelble: European Symbols, 1945-2000: Concept, Meaning and Historical Change – Jacques-René Rabier: Tradition et résurgences d’un mythe: le ravissement d’Europe – Michael Rice: When Archetype Meets Archetype: The Bull and Europa – Esteban Buch: Parcours et paradoxes de l’hymne européen – Yves Hersant: Douze étoiles d’or – Darby Lewes: The Site/Sight of Europa: Representations of Women in European Cartography – Jean-Michel Servet: L’euro: fenêtres et ponts d’un nomadisme monétaire – Richard Waswo: The Fact (and Figures) of the Supreme Fiction – Suzanne Shanahan: Currency and Community: European Identity and the Euro.
Concepts of Religious Bodies in Modern European Societies
A workshop organised by Lucian Hölscher, Ruhr-Universität Bochum and
Bo Stråth, EUI in the framework of the research project modernity of Europe
Directed by Bo Stråth and Peter Wagner
In La Capella 6-7 October, 2003.
The role of church and religion in modern societies is since the 18th century framed through the gradual emergence of two interconnected principles:
1. Individual freedom of religious confession and
2. Separation between state and church.
The break-through of these principles has occurred in processes full of political and religious contention. The point of time for the break-through varied widely across Europe as did its precise shape. In general, the separation of state and church has resulted in the recognition by the religious communities of the subordination under the civil obedience claims of the state, and the abandonment of religious truth claims by the state. However, history is full of examples (religiously motivated opposition against military state power, abortion, private schools, etc) which contradict the idea of two separate and autonomous spheres.
The aim of the workshop is to throw light on these processes through a conceptual-historical methodological approach. A case in point is the variety of terms for the religious communities. Church, Kirche, église, Religionsgemeinschaft, sect, established versus non-established churches, öffentliche versus private Glaubensgemeinschaften, priviligé versus non-priviligé religious communities all express the variety and the complexity. The hypothetical point of departure is that European nation states since the 18th century developed very different semantic models in the attempts to regulate the religious question. The aim is to map out this variety of semantic models.
Monday, 6th of October
10.00 Bo Stråth: Welcome
10.15 Lucian Hölscher: Introduction
10.45 Peter van Rooden (Amsterdam): The Return of Ethnicity: Dutch Concepts for Religious Groups, 1572-2002
12.00 Vincent Viaene (Leuven/Florence): „La liberté comme en Belgique“. The Semantic Stakes of „Separation“ Between Church and State in Belgium
15.00 Marie-Emanuelle Reytier (France): The Emergence of the ‚École laique‘ in France during the 19th Century
16.00 Callum Brown (Strathclyde, Glasgow): The Kirk and the Word: Meanings in the Ecclesastical Terminology of Scotland since 1700
17.15 Bo Stråth (Florence): Church and State in Sweden: Semantic Structures in the 20th Century
18.15 Martin Papenheim (Düsseldorf): Church and State in Italy from the 18th to the 20th Century. Semantic struggles and political compromises?
Tuesday, 7th of October
10.00 Hans Bödeker (Göttingen): The Semantic Relationship Between Church, Individual and Religious Parties in Germany 1648 to 1815
11.00 Lucian Hölscher (Bochum): The Process of „Confessionalization“ in Germany in the 19th Century
12.15 Siegfried Weichlein (Berlin): Church and State in the Weimar Republic: Conflict and Semantics.
15.00 Victor Conzemius (Luzern): State and Churches in Swizerland: From the Ancien Régime to the 21st Century
16.15 Martin Schulze-Wessel (München): Church and State in the late 19th and Early 20th Centuries: Russia and Tchechoslowakia in Comparison
17.15 Final Discussion
Workshop languages: English, French and German
Administration: Sylvie Pascucci, EUI (email@example.com)
The Thyssen Stiftung sponsors the workshop
European Enlightenment and Romanticism in Comparison
A workshop at The European University Institute
13 October 2001, Villa La Fonte
Project 2005 is a co-operative Norwegian-Swedish research programme aiming at an analysis of political, economic and religious cultures in Norway and Sweden in European comparison during the 19th and 20th centuries with a particular interest in how the issue of modernity was confronted. The goal is to explore Norwegian and Swedish patterns and their interrelationships within a broader European framework. The European point of reference has two aspirations: a) to discern the specificities of Norwegian and Swedish patterns and b) to see how, and to what extent, European patterns were incorporated in the North. The background of the research programme is the centenary commemoration of the liquidation of the personal union Sweden-Norway in 1905.
The research programme attempts to address these questions within a series of workshops. The first of these was on liberalism in August 2000. The second was held in March 2001 on the welfare state. The third will take place at the European University Institute in Florence 13 October 2001 entitled Scandinavian Enlightenment in Comparison. Additional workshops are planned on Conservatism and Scandinavianism.
The aim of this workshop is to shed light on the emergence of Enlightenment discourses in 18th century in Scotland and Germany and how they were incorporated and transformed in Swedish and Norwegian debates. Our primary concern does not lie in the ideas as such, but how they were translated into and implemented in the political cultures and economies in these countries was well as in Scandinavia. There is a clear connection between Enlightenment and liberalism in this respect yet the exact contours of this relationship remain vague. We are also interested in the connection between the Enlightenment and the early phases of Romanticism (i.e. up till the 1830s). This Romanticism can be seen as a critical correction without questioning or going beyond the general framework of the Enlightenment. The criticism aimed at refinement of the Enlightenment project, where the premises of Enlightenment were accepted. The critique was particularly wary of consequences of Enlightenment: „What would happen if all were to live according to individual desires and preferences?“ This Romanticist criticism underpinned the Enlightenment quest for authenticity under the pressure of a quest for rationality, yet another Enlightenment trope. The central question of this workshop can be formulated as follows:
How were, in a broader European comparison, tensions within the Enlightenment discourse such as those between authenticity and rationality, autonomy and control/management/governance, between diversity and unity, yes, claims for freedom and claims for equality coped with in Scandinavia?
To shed light on this question the Scandinavian debate and political practices from the 1770s/1780s until the 1830s/1840s should, in a European comparison, be positioned within the triangle of Enlightenment-Liberalism-(early) Romanticism.
Villa La Fonte (via delle Fontanelle 20, San Domenico di Fiesole
Saturday, 13 October 2001
9.30 Bo Stråth (Chairman ), Welcome
Part 1: (9.45 – 12.30)
9.45 – 10.15 Hans Bödeker, The German Political Discourse about 1800: From the Political Late Enlightenment to Early Liberalism?
10.15 – 10.45 Nicholas Phillipson, Improvement and the Progress of the Mind in the Scottish Enlightenment
11.00- 12.30 Discussion
12.30 – 13.30 Lunch Break
Part 2: (13.30-15.00)
13.30 – 14.00 Anne-Lise Seip, Enlightenment and Romanticism on the Norwegian Scene, 1790-1840: The Quest for Freedom
Part 3: (15.30-17.30)
15.30-16.00 Robert Wokler, Romanticist and Romantic Images of the Age of Enlightenment
Collective Identities and Multiple Modernities
Workshop, 14-16 December 2000
in the Teatro, Badia Fiesolana
Organised by Shmuel Eisenstadt, Alessandro Pizzorno, Bo Stråth and Peter Wagner
This workshop addresses the concept of collective identity and its relation to the concept of modernity. Both of these ambiguous, contradictory and contextual concepts are replete with (contested) meanings. The aim of the workshop is to shed light on this plurality rather than to isolate definitions. Collective identities are studied in the framework of and through modernity in all its varied forms. A relationship between collective identity and the precise shape of modernity is assumed. They are, in fact, mutually constructive.
For the texts of Shmuel Eisenstadt’s and Wilfred Spohn’s presentations please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Session 1 Various types of collective identities
Thursday 14 December
14.30 Shmuel Eisenstadt, The Reconstruction of Religious Arenas in the Contemporary Scene: Beyond the „End of History“ or the „Clash of Civilisations“
15.30 Johann Arnason, Modernity and Nationalism, Central European Perspectives
16.45 Heidrun Friese, Elective Affinities, „German-Jewish“ Identities and Modernity
17.45 Tamar Herzog, Alternatives of Exclusion: 18th Century Spanish Reception of the „Internal Other“
Friday 15 December
09.00 Mario Sznajder, Latin American Populism
Session 2 The public sphere and the submersion of identities
10.00 Alessandro Pizzorno, Variations in the Relationship Between the Public Sphere and Representative Regimes
11.15 Patrizia Nanz, Multiple Voices, A Dialogical Concept of the European Public Sphere
12.15 Luis Roniger, Collective Identities and Public Spheres in Latin America
Session 3 Varieties of citizen-polity relations
14.30 Shlomo Fischer, Religion, Modernity, Collective Identity and Citizenship in Israel
15.30 Laurent Thévenot, Aggrandizing Human Beings in French and US Polities: From Personal to Public Engagements
16.45 Peter Wagner, Constructing the Polity as a Community of Responsibility, Nation-building around Work in France and Germany
17.45 Julia Lerner, New ‚Russian‘ Diasporas: The Identity Construction and Search of a Motherland
Saturday 16 December
Session 4, The interaction of religion, nation and class in the emergence of collective identities
09.00 Gerold Gerber, The Social Construction of Liminality and Identity in Malta
10.00 Danièle Hervieu-Leger, Les identités religieuses collectives en modernité: les formes de la validation du croire et la pluralisation des régimes de la vérité Abstract
11.15 Willfried Spohn, Religion, Nation-States and Collective Identities in Europe, A Comparative Historical-Sociological Outline
12.15 Bo Stråth, Religion, Folk and Class in the Construction of Community in Scandinavia
Johann Arnason, Shmuel Eisenstadt, Shlomo Fischer, Heidrun Friese, Gerold Gerber, Danièle Hervieu-Leger, Tamar Herzog, Julia Lerner, Patrizia Nanz, Alessandro Pizzorno, Luis Roniger, Mats Rosengren, Armando Salvatore, Willfried Spohn, Bo Stråth, Arpád Szakolczai, Mario Sznajder, Laurent Thévenot, Peter Wagner, Björn Wittrock.
A cooperative project of the European University Institute and the University of Haifa
Florence 14-15 April 2000, villa Schifanoia sala Europa
Workshop organised by: Ron Robin and Bo Stråth
This workshop aspires to examine the significance of „Homeland“ as a dominant paradigm in contemporary debates on the politics of identity. In a world characterised by continuous and ever accelerating change, the enduring attraction of „Homelands“ is paradoxical: It suggests clear and stable demarcations of in- and exclusion in a matrix that apparently harbours diametric trends. As notions of place and belonging lose their coherence, the geographical, cultural and political connotations of homeland are radically redefined. In some cases the meaning of homeland is under perpetual (re)construction; in other places it is under siege. Nowhere do economic, technological, social and political ruptures bypass „Homeland“. This is illustrated in the flux that typifies the late 20th century.
Our focus will concentrate on central themes which define and interpret meanings of „Homeland“ as both geopolitical space and imagined community. The gender-laden significance of mother-tongue and fatherland, the political and general experiences of exile, diaspora and return, the technological implosion of time and place, and the interplay of religious and secular narratives of homeland, will provide the basis for our deliberations.
As point of departure, this workshop will focus on „Homeland“ as a powerful discursive regime governing the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The mobilising power of loss and recuperation, belonging and foreignness, immutability and adaptation, are all central themes informing the notion of „Homeland“ in the Middle-East. These themes, in turn, are constructed upon a foundation of binary oppositions of premodern-modern, sacred-secular, expulsion-return which we intend to explore during the course of this workshop. To gain perspective and develop conceptual generalisations, we also intend to consider additional applications where the concept of „Homeland“ historically is replete with meaning. Heimat in Germany and Austria, and hembygd in Sweden are two such concepts.
14 April 2000
9.30 Bo Stråth and Ron Robin, Welcome
10.00 Issam Nassar, Watan: an Elusive Term Abstract
10.45 Coffee Break
11.00 Fania Oz-Salzberger, Oh, My Land, My Homeland: Origins, Varieties and Fate of Zionist Poetics of „Moledet“ Abstract
12.00 Nissim Calderon, The Large Gap Between Home and Land Abstract
13.00 Lunch, sala delle Bandiere
15.00 Rolf Petri, The meanings of „Heimat“ 1850-1945
16.00 James Kaye, The Home, Sacred and Profane Abstract
17.00 Birgitta Frello, The Construction of Homeland in the Danish Media Representations of the Wars in Ex-Yugoslavia Abstract
15 April 2000
10.00 Ron Robin, The Necrogeography of Homeland. Holy Saints and National Heroes in the Middle East Conflict Abstract
11.15 Coffee Break
11.30 Rema Hammami, Home as homeland: Gendered construction of the Palestinian Nation
13.00 Lunch, sala delle Bandiere
14.00 Ilan Gur-Ze’ev, Holocaust/Nakbah as an Israeli/Palestinian Homeland Abstract
15.00 Salim Tamari, Treacherous Memories: The Elusive Meaning of Exile Abstract
16.00 Final Discussion
Ron Robin email@example.com and Bo Stråth firstname.lastname@example.org
The workshop resulted in the edited volume Homelands.
Ideology and Historiography: The Making of Identity in Yugoslavian Historiography
Florence 8-9 May 2000 sala Europa, villa Schifanoia
Workshop Professor Bo Stråth
Organised by: Augusta Dimou, Birgitta Frello, Sabine Rutar and Bo Stråth
This workshop takes the dramatic breakdown of Yugoslavia, one of the most intriguing and complex events at the end of the 20th century, as its point of departure. Two Yugoslavias (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918-1941 and the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945-1991) were created and destroyed in this century. The image of Yugoslavia has a long and eventful history. As an ideological concept, an administrative model and a state, the idea of Yugoslavia has undergone several mutations encompassing, at different times, such diametrically opposite principles as transnational federalism and integral nationalism.
Primarily, this workshop aspires to fill a gap in the research of Serbian, Slovenian and Croatian historiography; an area that has been granted very little attention. Every history has ipso facto a story about its history. Taking this fact as a premise, the workshop will scrutinise the metier d’historien and attempt to discern how historians figuring both as intellectuals and as engineers of the past construct meaningful, coherent and exegetic narratives for academic or public consumption. Secondly, the workshop will analyse the intricacies of the idiosyncratic symbiosis between historical production and ideological conviction. Thirdly, the workshop will assess the role of the above mentioned factors in the construction of identity and community, and the way historical narratives enter public and literate space, forming perceptions and imaginations.
The genesis of Yugoslavian ideology should be understood in the light of three important parameters. Firstly, within the broader context of European intellectual thought of the 19th century; secondly, in the concrete and complex circumstances prevailing on the Balkan Peninsula; and thirdly, in the geopolitical constellation of the European powers and their strategy towards the Balkans.
The creation of Yugoslavian ideology was a dynamo for the realisation of the Yugoslavian states. The ideology presented an institutional framework to reconcile and overcome diverging historical traditions, languages, and confessions. In a situation when the European Union in the context of enlargement negotiations is faced with dramatic challenges of the whole unification on multiple levels, such as social and economic politics, institutional reform requirements, foreign policy, claims for more democracy, tension between central and local decision-making etc., there are good reasons to pay close attention to Yugoslavian experiences.
The time-span selected for the workshop — 1901-1941 — is motivated by the fact that this period saw a generation of historians/intellectuals dedicated to the construction of Yugoslavia. Their scholarly production and institutional involvement played a seminal role in the propagation and eventually the realisation of the Yugoslavian State. The year 1901 marks the beginning of Srpski Knjizevni Glasnik (the Serbian Literature Review), a publication which exerted significant influence in shaping and popularising the Yugoslavian idea, 1941 marked their departure from the scene and the beginning of a new era in Yugoslavian statehood and ideology.
10:00 Wolfgang Höpken (University of Leipzig) Historical Identity in a Divided Society. The Case of Yugoslavia 1918-1941
11:15 Milos Kovic (Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences, Belgrade) The Yugoslav Idea in Serbian Historiography at the Eve of the First World War (1901-1914) Abstract
14:30 Ervin Dolenc (Institute of Contemporary History, Ljubljana) The Slovenian Question: Changing the View of the Character of the Yugoslav Community Abstract
15:45 Predrag Markovic (Institute for Social History, Belgrade) The Attempt of a Supranational Identity Construction in Socialist Yugoslavia. A Case in Historiography
9:00 Dušan Djordjevic (Stanford University) Re-imagining Yugoslavia: Serbian Historians and the Yugoslav Idea, 1933-1941 Abstract
10:00 Christian Promitzer (University of Graz) History and Anthropology. The Yugoslav Focus in the Work of Niko Zupanic Abstract
Carl Bethke (University of Berlin) The Development of National-Political Identities in the Vojvodina Abstract
14:30 Dejan Jovic ( LSE, EUI ) The Constitutional Debate 1967-1974: Why did the Serbian Leaders accept the Kardelj Concept and the 1974 Constitution?
15:45 Birgitte Frello (Copenhagen Peace Research Institute) Western Constructions of the Yugoslavian Wars
Multiple Modernities: Between Nation Building and Muslim Traditions
Florence, 5 October 1999, Sala Belvedere, Villa Schifanoia
Workshop of professor Bo Stråth
Organised by: Armando Salvatore and Bo Stråth
This workshop addresses the impact of Islamic practices on the public sphere dynamics in Muslim societies. The purpose is to explore ways in which Muslim practices are mediated through the discursive tradition of Islam, and how this tradition intersects with state-building as well as with institutions variously situated with regard to the public sphere. What efforts have actors within religious traditions undertaken to give these traditions coherence under new conditions of media communication and intellectual mediation in the public sphere? This question will be related to the specific historical and political transformations associated with the dissolution of empires and the formation of modern nation states (Egypt, Turkey, Syria, Yugoslavia). Thereby the focus will be on the creation of new fields of power, such as the public sphere itself, which redefine the possibilities of hegemony and resistance. The aim is also to demonstrate that traditions are fluid and reenacted in various and sometimes unpredictable ways. Innumerable permutations unsettle both old and new versions of modernisation theory and theories of cultural revivalism and authencity. The workshop will hopefully thrownew light on the relationships between tradition and modernity.
The workshop aims at the upgrading of the collaborative efforts of a research group on Muslim Practices and the Public Sphere and at the fine-tuning of manuscripts for a book on Religious Know-How and the Public Sphere in Muslim Societies.
5 October 1999
9.00 Armando Salvatore (HU Berlin and KWI Essen): Introduction: Muslim Traditions within Modernity
9.45 Michael Gasper (New York University): Citifying and Civilising: Islamic Modernism, the Egyptian Press and the Peasants Question in late 19th Century Egypt
Discussant: Almut Höfert (EUI Florence)
11.30 Andreas Christmann (University of Manchester): An Invented Piety: Ramadan in Syrian Mass Media
Discussant: Armando Salvatore
14.00 Nadia Hashmi (EUI, Florence): Redefining Religion and Modernity: the Second Generation Immigrant in Europe
Discussant: Patrizia Nanz (EUI, Florence)
15.15 Burcu Akan (George Washington University, Washington, DC): Memory, Tradition-Making and Transcultural Identity between the Balkans and the Turkish Republic
Discussant: Valerie Amiraux
16.30 Bo Stråth (EUI, Florence)
The workshop is co-sponsored by the German-American Academic Council — German-American research Network
Organisers: Armando Salvatore and Bo Stråth email@example.com
History and Community: Rethinking the Nation State
A cooperative project of the European University Institute and the University of Haifa
Florence 1-2 October, 1999:
Friday 1 October at Villa la Fonte, via delle Fontanelle 20
Saturday 2 October at Sala Teatro, Badia Fiesolana, via dei Roccettini 9
Workshop of Professor Bo Stråth
Organised by Ron Robin and Bo Stråth
As we approach the close of the twentieth century the idea of a world that has transcended the nation state seems both inevitable and impossible. The end of the Cold War and the forces of globalization in both economic spheres and information technology have, at least technically, eclipsed the primacy of the local and regional. Paradoxically, the nation state has endured. The nation is still the principal form of political, social, and cultural discourse in the global arena. Contrary to apocalyptic visions of the „Clash of Civilizations,“ nationalism appears to be the most enduring site of conflict within the international arena. It still remains the most fruitful site for constructive social reform as well.
The tensions between the divergent forces of the local and global have rekindled theoretical debates on the relationship between the national and the cosmopolitan, their respective meanings and limitations. Hence, a critique and analysis of the metageography of the nation-the spatial structure of national entities that permeate our knowledge and perception of the world-serves as our point of departure for this workshop. We intend to explore alternatives to traditional theories of nationalism by examining the contemporary theories of post-nationalism, multiple loyalties and neo-nationalism. New demarcations of „We“ and „They“, the dynamic nature of nationalism, its dangers and promises, will provide the framework for the various sessions of this workshop.
Using history as an analytical format, we will address contemporary issues on how the circles of „We“ are drawn in contemporary global politics and culture. For this, the first workshop, we have invited a group of scholars from the Middle East and Europe, major epicenters of national conflict. Participants in this conference should not, however, focus on analysis of any specific case. Instead the debate is one of theory.
In order to clarify the contours of this meeting, we suggest, that all papers address in one way or another two common readings that come to terms with the fine and often mobile line separating communities of descent-the national culture from communities of assent-the cosmopolitan framework:
David Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, New York: Basic Books, 1995.
Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins (eds.), Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
Friday 1 October 1999
Villa la Fonte, via delle Fontanelle 20
9.00 Opening Remarks: Ron Robin and Bo Stråth
Ilan Pappe: Multicultural Education and Peace: Theory and Practice for the Palestinian Question
Coffee at 10.45
11.00 Jamil M. A. Hilal: Title to be announced
Göran Rosenberg: The Warm Circles of Politics: Patterns of Belief and Belonging in The Wake of the Nation State
Lunch at 13.00
14.30 Klaus Eder: The Nation State – Still a Mechanism of Democratising Collective Sentiments
Kim Salomon: Postmodernity and the Choice of Identity
Coffee at 16.15
16.30 Birgitta Frello: A Theoretical Viewpoint on the Bargaining of Collective Identities
Saturday, 2 October 1999
Sala Teatro, Badia Fiesolana, via dei Roccettini 9
9.30 Issam Nassar: Writing History on the Nation
Lutz Niethammer: Title to be announced
Coffee at 11.30
11.45 Rebecca Kook: Reflections on Politics and Culture in the Nation State
14.30 Musa Budeiri: Title to be announced
Maoz Azaryahu: Nation vs. State. Some General Remarks
Coffee at 16.30
16.45 Final Discussion: Ron Robin and Bo Stråth
Participants: Maoz Azaryahu, Musa Budeiri, Klaus Eder, Birgitta Frello, Jamil M. A. Hilal, Rebecca Kook, Issam Nassar, Lutz Niethammer, Ilan Pappe, Ron Robin, Göran Rosenberg, Kim Salomon, Bo Stråth.
Ron Robin firstname.lastname@example.org and Bo Stråth email@example.com
Modernity, Enlightenment and Genocide
The Research Project: „The Cultural Construction of Community in the Process of Modernization“
Workshop: Florence 9-10 November 1998, Sala Europa, Villa Schifanoia
Directed by Bo Stråth
Modernity has often been seen in connection with the Enlightenment. Social criticism based on the Enlightenment has in this view paved the way for modernity. A more or less evolutionary development toward an ever better society has been the thrust of this view. „Social engineering“ is an illustrative concept. Confidence in the capacity of social and economic sciences to contribute to the improvement of society has been an important proponent of this view, which exists both in a Marxist and a liberal functionalist version.
On the other hand, Hitler and Stalin provoked a different view on the connection between the Enlightenment and modernity. Reinhart Koselleck in his doctoral thesis Kritik und Krise in 1954 argued that the Enlightenment provoked critique which, in turn, provoked crisis and adjustment. The ideas of freedom and equality, merged in the motto of the French Revolution, later on split up and expressed in the two ideologies of liberalism and socialism, had in the 1950s been transformed and were underpinning the Cold War and the terror balance.
In this negative view the civilisation critique of modern technique, capitalism and a pluralistic society, experienced as atomistic, paved the way for fascism/Nazism through its promotion of dreams about Volksgemeinschaft, holistic community and „back to nature“.
Weber’s modernisation view exhibits elements of both of these perspectives: a clear evolutionary element as in the first one, but not necessarily towards ever higher stages in an optimistic scenario. His view is rather pessimistic. Works by Peukert and, quite recently, Arpad Szakolczai, emphasise similarities between Weber and Nietzsche. Modernity is a permanent process of mystification and demystification.
In his „post-modern“ approach Zygmunt Bauman shares Weber’s pessimistic view in order to explain the Holocaust, which is seen as a consequence of modernity and its Zweckrationalität.
The aim of the workshop outlined here is more precisely to shed light on the connections within the triangular problem field Enlightenment-Modernity-Genocide.
Of course, the Holocaust is central in this undertaking. Zygmunt Bauman sees the Holocaust as a consequence of modernity. In a recent contribution to the debate Daniel Goldhagen sees Holocaust as a consequence of the German Volk. He is rather extreme in developing his thesis, and he has also met with many objections. However, the thrust of the German Historikerstreit some ten years ago was that the Holocaust was unique and could not be compared with anything else. Not the German Volk but the specific German historical development trajectory, the German Sonderweg paved the way to the catastrophe.
When the outcome of this German Historikerstreit was the emphasis of a German uniqueness, this emphasis must be seen in the framework of Nolte’s provocative thesis, where Hitler was seen as a European Anti-Lenin and Germany as an Anti-Bolshevik bulwark. Like Goldhagen, although from an opposite view, Nolte has been more or less removed from the agenda as being too extreme and too biased.
What remains is a tension between Bauman’s view and a more historical view, where the question can be asked why antisemitism was stronger in some parts of Europe than in others. Although the technical component in the form of instrumental rationality is obvious, the role of the Jacobin component must also be asked for, and related to the Zweckrationalität.
In this respect the question should also be put about what is specific of 20th century genocide as opposed to the general question of violence and warfare. Were, for instance, the witch-hunt and Napoleon’s execution of 3,000 Turkish prisoners still „normal“ historical atrocities in comparison to the practice of the Serbs?
Ten years after this German debate the livre noir in France has documented the terror and genocide contained in Communist practice. The Algerian and the Yugoslavian civil wars represent other cases of genocide. Without disputing the uniqueness of the Holocaust the question of the connection between modernity and genocide can be put with even greater emphasis.
The mutual strength of the two major perspectives on the connection Modernity-Enlightenment – the optimistic and the pessimistic one – has varied over time in theoretical reflection on society. The first optimistic scenario did not disappear with the unmasking of the Holocaust, for instance, but underpinned much of the social sciences in the 1960s and 1970s. It had a new renaissance under new label during the neoliberal 1980s and during the brief euphoric period after the events in 1989. The developments in Yugoslavia and the exposure of the outrages in the name of Communism brought once again genocide to Europe, however, and they reminded us of the second view on the connection between modernity and the Enlightenment.
The tension between the optimistic and pessimistic views on modernity should be the second main problem of the workshop. This problem field will be addressed by asking whether there are not elements of the Enlightenment project, and its precursor the Renaissance, that still could be of importance in responses to technical developments. This is a question of under which conditions technology can be controlled and Jacobinism be domesticated
Texts prepared for the workshop by Zygmunt Bauman, Robert Thurston and Göran Rosenberg are available via e-mail. Please contact Sylvie Pascucci firstname.lastname@example.org .
Monday 9 November 1998
9.30 Bo Stråth: Opening Remarks
9.45 Zygmunt Bauman: Modernity and Genocide
10.15 Arne Johan Vetlesen: Yugoslavia, Genocide and Modernity
13.00 Lunch, Sala Bandiere
15.00 Robert Thurston: 20th Century Genocide and Stalinism in Relation to Historical Violence and Warfare
16.00 Janina Bauman: „Porrejmos“, the Roma Holocaust
17.00 General Discussion
20.00 Dinner, Villa Bonelli, via F. Poeti 1, Fiesole
Tuesday 10 November
10.00 Bernd Giesen: Postutopian Democracy and Enlightenment
11.30 Arpad Szakolczai: Modernity Interpreted Through Weber and Foucault
13.00 Lunch, Sala Bandiere
15.00 James Schmidt: Reason, Terror, and the Dialectic of Enlightenment
16.00 Robert Wokler: Modernity between Enlightenment and Genocide
17.00 Göran Rosenberg will open the General Discussion
20.00 Dinner, Graziella, Maiano
The workshop resulted in the edited volume Enlightenment and Genocide, Contradictions of Modernity.
Modernity and Religion in Europe and the Middle East: Self-Images and Image of The Other
European University Institute
Dept. of History and Civilisation and Robert Schuman Centre
The Research Project „The Cultural Construction of Community“ directed by Bo Stråth
Workshop, Florence 3-4 April, 1998
Sala Europa, Villa Schifanoia
Organiser: Bo Stråth
The idea is to study the nexus of religion and modernity in the framework of the emerging selfimage in Europe and in the Middle East in a long historical perspective. The emerging and maintained selfimage had as a point of departure the image of the Other. In the interactive construction of We and They the image of Europe took form. The question is how the Other was constructed and how the Other (in this case the Orient) internalised this counter-image.
In these processes the role of religion has been crucial. Early on elements of Enlightenment thoughts and ideas of scientifically legitimised rationalities merged with religion in the building of selfimage and images of the Other. A case in point here is Almut Höfert’s analysis at the EUI of various discourses in Italy on the Turk, where the religious travelling reports become ever more ethnografic, i e they are increasingly legitimatised under reference to science. In this framework also the view on Europe as enlightened and on the Orient as despotic emerges.
These processes of identity construction with religion as instrument can be seen as a triangular drama between Christianity, Jewry, and Islam, where Christianity can be subdivided at least into Catholicism and Protestantism. A main question is how they were mobilised with and against one another, both in Western and Eastern Europe and in the Middle East. Here the well-known fact must be emphasised that the term „Middle East“ is developed from a European view.
Another main question is how religion gradually merged with Enlightenment and science as legitimising elements. How did this transformation look like more precisely in different areas and periods? What did the nexus religion-modernity look like? Two nexuses, which at the same time could be described as Spannungsfelder, „fields of tension“ can be discerned in the discussion of such questions:
a) between Us and the Others, and
b) between modernity and religion.
One main aim with the workshop would be to shed light on these two Spannungsfelder and how they interact.
Any construction of community builds on a demarcation in We and They. The Greeks and the Romans invented the barbarians, the Christians the heathens, who were seen as ignorant and lower standing, or they demarcated themselves from e g the Jews or the Turks or the Muslims. The religious dimension of the demarcation was obvious early on in the Middle Ages. With Enlightenment a more uniform view on Man emerged. The religious embedding of the demarcation was relativised. Ethnography emerged as a science, and the idea of belonging to an ethnos (nation, but cf Greek ethnikos, heathen), or a race, became new instruments of demarcation, supplementing and reinforcing rather than replacing the older religious ones.
During the nineteenth century this division was increasingly developed by means of concepts like „backward“ and „progressive“. Modernity became a key concept. Ideas of white man’s burden emerged. Modernity was a Western idea, which, however, also became a goal in e. g. the Middle East (cf. Atatürk, for instance).
When in the twentieth century anthropology relativised our image of the Other, this was a relativisation made from a European point of view. Certainly a relativistic view on religion emerged, but at the same time it was clear that this relativistic view was only possible in the West, where the development was believed to have achieved a „higher“ and more sophisticated stage, one of the expressions of which was the relativistic view on religion.
In this rough draft of a long historical framework we would very much welcome a deeper discussion and exemplification of the construction of Us and the Others, under reference and feedback to the framework.
Modernity can be seen as a time standard. Reference to this time standard is an instrument in the construction of Us and the Others. The selfimage of being more forward on this standard often resulted in condescension in the image of the Other. In the selfimage of the Other, the Western Other was often seen as a model to emulate.
Another point of reference in the construction of community is religion. The concept of religion is per se a doubtful construct and we would welcome critical reflections on it. However, we nevertheless use the concept here as an approximative heuristic tool. Religion is an important element of modernity. Religion is not least an element of legitimisation in processes of modernisation. The relationships religion-modernity could be described in terms of adjustment in different directions, e g religious transformation/secularisation, or polarisation, e g fundamentalism. Both forms are conceivable when demarcations in We and They are made. Religion can perhaps be seen in relation to modernity as a process of relativisation/secularisation in a pluralistic direction with repeated responses in a more absolute direction when fundamentalist claims recur.
We expect that all the contributions explicitly take an attitude to the rough heuristic framework suggested here. One main aim is to critically elaborate and refine it by means of various „cases“ covering different periods and areas. The contributions have all different focus and points of departure, but they should all have an explicit consideration of the framework in common.
We would like to organise the discussion of our problem in the form of a small workshop with some six contributions, which would allow us to discuss rather than reading papers.
Friday 3rd April, Sala Europa, Villa Schifanoia
15.00 Shmuel Eisenstadt, Jerusalem
Jerusalem, who would give a broad and general overview of the problem complex of Modernity-Religion(-Enlightenment/Science)
16.15 Gabriel Piterberg, Beer Sheva
Orientalism and Nationalist Historical Narratives in the Middle East
17.30 Armando Salvatore, Berlin
Islam and the Political Discourse of Modernity
20.00 Dinner in Pizzeria San Domenico di Fiesole
Saturday 4rd April, Sala Europa
9.30 Almut Höfert, EUI
The Construction of the Turk in Western Europe
10.30 Rouzbeh Parsi, Lund
Modernisation in Turkey and Iran and the image of Europe
11.30 Anja Hänsch, EUI
Encounters with Europe in Arab and Franco-Arab Literature
13.00 Lunch in Villa Schifanoia, Sala delle Bandiere
14.30 Wilfried Spohn, Berlin
Nationalism, Protestantism, Catholicism and Jewry with Illustration from Germany and Poland
20.00 Dinner in Trattoria da Graziella (Maiano, tel. 599963)
For more details on the Workshop please contact the secretary
Sylvie Pascucci (fax: +39-55-4685744 and e-mail: email@example.com)
The workshop resulted in the edited volume Europe and the Other and Europe as the Other.
From Social to Political Violence
European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre and the Department of History in cooperation with the International Commission for Social History and Lund University
Workshop 16-17 October 1998, in Sala Europa, Villa Schifanoia
Organised by Francis Demier and Bo Stråth
This workshop is envisaged as a preliminary discussion of a subject to be addressed at the World History Congress in Oslo in 2000. The proceedings will be based on national reports from Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland. Methodological and theoretical problems involved in historical research on social violence will be addressed, and a first rough attempt through comparison will be made, to discern various patterns of national similarities and differences.
The term violence is understood here in a general sense that encompasses all forms of violence. Questions concerning both the emergence of violence and the difference between every day violence and violence used by social movements in support of political struggles will be of central importance. Other questions deal with varied thresholds of tolerance for different countries and how this diversity is related to individual national cultures and social structures: What is defined where as social and political violence, and what is considered to be at the root of such violence? One of the paramount issues at hand concerns the existence, and then nature, of the link between social and political violence.
Revolutionary violence cannot be disregarded, nevertheless it is not the main problem. Additionally reactionary violence and defence measures taken by the established order will be touched upon. The workshop will constitute a first step in the more cohesive reflection on theories and doctrines on social and political level.
Fri 16 October
13.00 Lunch Sala Bandiere
15.00 Introduction. Francis Demier
15.30 Tentative national profiles for Belgium and the Czech Republic
17.00 Coffee break
20.30 Dinner in Restaurant Ottorino, via delle Oche 12/r
Sat 17 October
09.30 Tentative national profiles for France, Germany and Russia
11.00 Coffee break
13.00 Lunch Sala Bandiere
14.30 Tentative national profiles for Romania, Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland
17.00 Coffee break
17.20 Final discussion: The Contours of a Comparison and a Theoretical Framework
20.30 Dinner in Restaurant Il Francescano, Largo Bargellini 16
Irène Andersson (Lund), Dan Berendei (Academie Roumaine Bucarest), Jean Pierre Chaline (Paris), Ute Daniel (Braunschweig), Francis Demier (Paris X), Lars Hultman (Lund), Arne Jarrick (Stockholm), Joseph Joblin (Pontificia Universita Gregoriana), Kenneth Johansson (Lund), Roger Johansson (Lund), Hans U. Jost (Lausanne), Jiri Koralka (Prague), Ginette Kurgan (Univ. Libre de Bruxelles), Sophie Ollivier (Dublin), Eva Österberg (Lund), Jürgen Reulecke (Siegen), Weslav Shilov (Comite national des Historiens de Russie), Johan Söderberg (Stockholm), Jean Stengers (Academie royale de Belgique), Bo Stråth (EUI) and Klaus Tenfelde (Bochum).
1848. Commemoration in Europe
The Research Project: The Cultural Construction of Community
Directed by Bo Stråth
25-26 May 1998, Conference organised by Charlotte Tacke
Interest in the role of history and historiography as a factor in the construction of communities and especially of national societies has become particularly intense over the past decade. Nevertheless, this topic has in most cases been treated more as a problem of bygone societies, particularly those of the 19th Century, than of the present. The 150th anniversary of the Revolution of 1848 affords us the opportunity to study the role of history and memory in contemporary societies. As the Revolution was an European phenomenon, it provides a fine example for comparative study of the role of memory and commemoration in Eastern, Central and Western Europe.
The central question of the round table will be to examine and compare the role of collective memory in modern societies. How does collective memory work in different European societies? Who is interested in commemoration? How do historians, politicians and journalists commemorate the Revolution and to what extent is the public included and interested? Is it a process implemented from above, performed by professionals or are there any initiatives from below? Is commemoration a national matter or do regional and local interests play a role? Which are the dates, events or places of memory? As commemoration consists of remembrance as well as the lack thereof, the participants are asked to consider which dates, events or places enter in public memory and which are forgotten.
Which differences can be seen in comparing the commemoration in 1998 with previous anniversaries, i.e. 1898 and 1948? In what respects has the memory of 1848, and the way of historising it, changed over the last hundred years? Which role do the events of 1989 play in the memory of 1848 in Eastern and Central, but also in Western Europe, especially in Germany? As historical research depends highly on national traditions and national memory itself, the discussion should reflect the similarities and differences of research subjects and approaches on 1848 in different European Countries. By doing so, the round table could live up to its name, i.e. not only to examine the role of history and historiography for collective memory but also that of collective memory for history and historiography. Historians working on nine different nations/regions have been invited to participate in this conference which will have a workshop character. A publication is envisaged.
The conference languages will be English and French. The workshop will begin on Monday morning (25 May) and end after lunch on Tuesday 26 May.
Bo Stråth firstname.lastname@example.org
Charlotte Tacke email@example.com
Monday 25 May 1998
09.30 Introduction Charlotte Tacke
10.00 France Jean-Luc Mayaud
10.30 Switzerland Andreas Ernst
11.00 Italy Simonetta Soldani
15.00 Denmark Steen Bo Frandsen
15.30 Norway Arve Thorsen
16.00 Sweden Håkan Forsell
16.30 Coffee break
Tuesday 26 May 1998
09.30 Germany Manfred Hettling
10.00 Austria Gabriella Hauch
10.30 East- and Central Europe Wolfgang Hoepken
11.00 Coffee break
Memory and Myth in the Construction of Community
uropean University Institute
Department of History and Civilisation and Robert Schuman Centre
The Research Project „The Cultural Construction of Community“
Conference in Bivigliano 4-7 June, 1998
Organiser: Bo Stråth
The objective of the conference is to shed more light on the role of foundation myths and the iconography of architecture and public monuments in processes of identity and Community construction.
The main questions to address in the contributions are:
How do various views on history emerge?
How are such views transformed?
What role do they play in contemporary society?
How has Community been produced in the field of tension between images of the past and visions of the future?
These questions could be broken down further: what was/is the decision process when e.g., national monuments are erected? What perceptions on the influence on the population were/are there? How is the heritage of the antiquity used in different settings? How have the capitals been recreated? How was the relation between local and national history/memory coped with? How did myths, monuments, urban space and ceremonies interrelate? What importance did the international settings have (trends, demarcations)? Relationships politics-religion, State-Church? What happened in the case of regime change?
The idea is to discuss these questions on a comparative basis – Germany, France, Italy, Britain, Poland, Hungary, Scandinavia, US, Israel and the Soviet Union are represented. Although the point of departure for the conference in many of the contributions will be the nation as a category of community, it would be nice to have a discussion of alternative communities (Europe, global, regional, local, etc.) in the individual contributions.
The view of the conference should not be history ‚wie es eigentlich gewesen‘, as Ranke put it, but how history has been interpreted, mediated and put into relation to the future in different settings, i.e., the target is the role of history when communities are constructed in demarcation of „we-they“ and „now-then“.
A point of departure is that the visual environment is manipulated through a metaphorical and figurative language. Imagery and iconography are other concepts in this context. Official styles of architecture and monuments function like dictionaries and grammar in the efforts to control and determine interpretations and meanings. A case in point is the nineteenth century debate on national styles which dealt with the choice of official iconography. In Italy, for instance, the choice stood between the Antiquity (whether the Republican or the Imperial), the (Tuscan) Middle Ages, and the Renaissance as source of inspiration.
The role of myths and the variety of the metaphoric language among different cultures have basically been questions dealt with in literature and art history studies respectively. They have until recently seldom been structured as elements of political processes to produce identity and community, however. Although there is an increasing scholarly interest in the connection to politics many questions remain to discuss and here the conference hopes to fill a gap.
Wed 3 June
Arrival. Dinner for participants not living in Florence
Thu 4 June
10.00-13.00 Myths and History
Opening of the Conference
Hayden White, „Myth, Memory and Catastrophe“
Wolfgang Kaschuba, „The Emergence and Transformation of Foundation Myths“
Charlotte Tacke, „Nations and Monuments“
15.00-19.00 Myth and Identity
Peter Burke, „Foundation Myths and Collective Identities in Early Modern Europe“
Luisa Passerini, „Europe and Europa in the Twentieth Century: Distances and Rapprochements“
Bo Stråth, „What is a European Identity?“
Erik Tängerstad, „The Third World as an Element in the Construction of a European Identity“
20.00 Dinner in Albergaccio Machiavelli, San Andrea in Percussina. Bus transfer departure from Giotto Park Hotel at 19.15.
Fri 5 June
The Mythical Representation of the Nation
9.00-13.00 Ilan Pappe, „The Israeli Foundation Myth“
Arve Thorsen, „National Day Celebration in Norway, France and Germany“
Nina Witoszek, „The Foundation Myths in Scandinavia, Germany and Poland“
Ewa Domanska, „Foundation Myths in Poland“
15.00-19.00 Marta Petrusewicz, „The Construction of the Mezzogiorno after 1848“
Peter Niedermüller, „Historizing the Future: Community, History and Politics in Postsocialist Eastern Europe“
Andrei Zorin, „Statehood and National Imagination in the Post-Communist Russia“
20.00 Opening of the exhibition „Ahnengalerie“ Wolfgang Pavlik. Dinner
Sat 6 June
The Iconography of the Nation in Architecture and Monuments
9.00-13.00 Lars Berggren, „The Creation of Italy with Monuments“
Sten Bo Frandsen, „The Third Rome in Fascistic Architecture“
Michael Miller, „Defining Place: Conflict in Social Representation. The Cases of Glasgow and Roubaix“
Göran Therborn, „Capital City Iconography“
Isabelle Benoît, „The Museal Construction of Germany and France“
15.00-19.00 Barbara Miller Lane, „A Dream of the North: National Romanticism and Modern Architecture in Germany and the Scandinavian Countries“
Beate Binder, „The Political Stage-Setting of Berlin“
Svetlana Boym, „Petersburg: Invention of Tradition and Nostalgia for World Culture“
Ron Robin, „The Representation of the American Nation in Architecture“
20.00 Conference Dinner. Musica classica novecento. Gruppo musicale: soprano, tenore arias.
Sun 7 June
10.00- Excursion to the American War Cemetery. Reflections by Ron Robin
The conference resulted in the edited volume Memory and Myth in the Construction of Community.