The Robert Schuman Centre of The European University Institute
A seminar organised by: James Kaye, Willfried Spohn, Bo Stråth and Anna Triandafyllidou
At border checkpoints political and military power merge and the state monopoly of violence is made evident to those who intend to pass as well as those just standing by. There, territory is demarcated and this demarcation enforced, enlightenment ideas of universal freedom and equality are shattered and there is little rational justification of why the jurisdiction of one state should end and another begin. Why not one or twenty meters to the right or left? Border checkpoints are limits between who is in and who is out; they separate citizens, giving them certain rights and duties, such as to enter, remain, vote, work, or serve in the armed services, from strangers who are compelled to submit to duties and restrictions of the state without an institutional role in its government. Borders also spatially limit the power of states and their right to implement policy. Passports and identity cards reify those who belong to a state, and sometimes national, "community of destiny" and deny membership in a community of communities to those who do not possess them. These phenomena, as we are familiar with them today, emerged from the developing system of nation states in nineteenth-century Europe and were internationally implemented and standardised during and in the aftermath of the First World War.
This can be related to a shift in the idea of a justification of power from one based upon divine right to the people. The idea of democracy insofar as it signifies that power and the justification of power lie in and emanate from people required an object that differentiated significantly from the subject of divine right. People, no longer subjects to a god or gods become the reason of state. This "Western" nineteenth century transformation of the justification of state, where it took place, generally paralleled the development of industrial capitalism and enlightenment based plans for the optimum government of people. It can be argued that systems were created partially based upon the value of individuals' services; and this value increased when the individual became a citizen, both as a soldier and worker. This was at the core of the universally imagined and emergent nationally implemented liberal order. The idea of nation-state demarcation was reinforced during the inter-war crisis of liberalism, a crisis to which the political response was national resource mobilisation.
One central precondition of this order changed fundamentally at the end of the twentieth century when industrial societies began a transformation process into information societies. Labour market organisation was profoundly altered. In the old order, capital investments in factories retained their value over decades and were as easy to control as the workers employed in them. In the new order capital became much more transient and much less tied to physical investments. Portfolios replaced machines and investment ignored borders in a way that the factories never could. The labour force became much less substitutable and much more specialised, less homogeneous and less hierarchically organised, with growing marginalisation and segmentation in labour markets. Trade unions lost their control of the supply of labour and governments lost much of their control of capital. The goal was no longer to control labour supply at the borders in general terms of the old order: easing restrictions when labour was in demand and pursuing a more restrictive policy when unemployment figures swelled. In the new emerging order of flexible labour markets low-wage disenfranchised workers are in demand for public or private service jobs to which it is difficult to recruit citizens. High-wage foreign employees are demanded for jobs, which require specific competence and where the domestic supply is insufficient. The interest in maintaining control has to a large extent moved from the borders to the new kinds of work places. Borders, on certain levels, have become increasingly penetrable despite new and restrictive legislation.
Additionally new issues confront the custodians of the borders, and those operating internal controls of labour markets and welfare systems. With the end of the Cold War, political instability and civil war in Africa, Central Asia and former Yugoslavia as well as commensurate weak economies and shortages of employment coupled with improved access to transport, have contributed to increased migration toward peaceful economically prosperous areas with labour shortages. These presented themselves to the authorities in the form of steeply rising applications for asylum, and in undocumented immigrant workers occupying niches in European labour markets at a time when unemployment ironically climbed to postwar highs. In the 1990s EU member states, for example, overhauled their asylum regimes, adopting more deterrent and restrictive, and less welfare-orientated systems, as well as tightening external border controls at the periphery of the Union "Fortress Europe". But even these measures are now considered to be inadequate, because they do not address crucial aspects of economic globalisation and the international division of labour. The EU is now moving towards a 'co-ordinated immigration policy' which includes both a common European asylum system and a framework for managing labour market needs.
The increase of immigration flows towards EU countries during the past decade and the social, economic and political issues related to it have attracted the interest of scholars from various disciplines. In spite of this growing academic concern and the (presumed) political will of national governments to deal with the issue, illegal immigrants continue to defy control measures and border patrols. Simultaneously, the integration of legal and/or "regularised" immigrants is given lip service and may actually be desired on certain levels. This, nevertheless, runs counter to the acceptance of a pluralistic society and can be seen as a new colonialisation of the "displaced". Governments and bureaucracies are disappointed that integration has remained so illusive. The inefficiency of immigration policy in many European countries is, to a certain extent, attributed to the international nature of the phenomenon and the complex and multifaceted "push" and "pull" factors involved in it. Poverty, unemployment and political instability are some of the "push" factors identified. However, "pull" factors are also important. In particular, attention is paid to the role of the informal labour market in providing work opportunities for illegal aliens, especially in southern European countries. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that immigration policy performance varies widely across states. Only in very recent years have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between the administrative practices of immigration control agencies, and the strategies adopted by immigrants.
The research project IAPASIS (Does Implementation Matter? Informal Administration Practices and Shifting Immigrant Strategies in Germany, Greece, Italy and the UK in Comparison) analyses the emergence of various administrative practices and the degree of discretion when immigration legislation is implemented. The project is particularly interested in the European variety in these respects. The general framework is the changing immigration patterns referred to in the above. The EURONAT project (Representations of Europe and the Nation in Current and Prospective Member-States: Media, Elites and Civil Society) studies European and national identities and the connections between them in six EU states and three Central and Eastern European states applying for EU membership. One important element in this project is the role of estimation of future migration flows in the enlargement negotiations. The EURONAT project lies at the crossroads between different research traditions on nations and European integration in political science, sociology, social psychology, cultural studies, history and international relations. The project aims at analysing and comparing the intertwining of European and national identity constructions, particularly the role of the Eastern enlargement, with a focus on the images, representations, understandings and meanings of Europe as they emerge in media, the discursive universe within which such processes occur. The Stranger project aims, from a global perspective that these pervasive phenomena appear to demand, to confront the excluded. This is both one of today's most relevant as well as a central historical trope, the Other. This Other as a legal and emotional entity, if not requirement, source and result of the process that created and maintained the modern national state the world over, has undergone an exponential inflational process over the past half century. This phenomenon appears to have two common characteristics: it has permeated the world as a "real" and/or a medial (and visual) experience and no one could or can suggest any ready solution. Through a systematic and integrative study by historians, lawyers and social scientists the project strives to promote inclusive, yet not oppressive, political communities.
In the organisational framework of these three research projects, the seminar series attempts to offer a forum for interdisciplinary theoretical and methodological reflection on community construction around key concepts like citizen and foreigner, and to actively involve the role of inter- or multimediality in these processes. In normative terms the aim is to discuss the preconditions of post-ethnic (and post-religious) community foundation and definitions of citizenship and alien status.
11 October, 11.00-13.00 in the Seminar room Convento
James Kaye, Wilfried Spohn, Bo Stråth and Anna Triandafyllidou, Introduction.
18 October, 11.00-13.00 in Sala Europa villa Schifanoia
Uffe Østergård (Aarhus)(Postponed due to canceled Flight)
Border and Territory in European History, Models for the Relationship between State and Nation in Europe since 1800
National Identity Reconsidered: A Closer Look into Self-Other Dynamics Download
8 November, 11.00-13.00 in the Seminar room Convento
Miriam Aziz (EUI/Marie Curie Fellow)
What Makes the European? EU Citizenship and an (O)ther (pdf)
The discussant, Ségolène Barbou des Places has also made a paper available
Looking for a Legal Definition of Citizenship
15 November, 11.00-13.00 in the Seminar room Convento
Iordanis Psimmenos (Panteion University, Athens)
Pathways of Immigration Control in the Labour Market: The Case of OAED in Greece
A joint venture with the seminar Collaborative History (Stråth) for a video production is currently scheduled for 11 December.
Thursday, 24 January, Extraordinary Double Seminar, Convento 15.00-19.00
Bill Jordan (Department of Social Work and Probation Studies, University of Exeter)
Labour Market Recruitment and Immigration Control in the UK
Tina Nebe (IUE/SPS)
Lay Theories of the "Other"
Students' Social Representations of Immigrants
Monday, 25 February, Convento 11.00-13.00
Sandrine Lemaire (Paris)
Zoos humains : étranges étrangers ou les mises en scène de l'altérité Download
Monday, 11 March, Convento 11.00-13.00
Renate Huber (IUE/HEC), Karin Liebhart (Österreichischen Ost- und Südosteuropa Institut, Vienna) and Elisabeth Menasse (Abteilung für Gesellschaftswissenschaften, Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur, Vienna)
Who is a Stranger?:
The presentation of a book series based upon the Austrian research programme: "Xenophobia: Research, Explanation, Countermeasures"
Monday, 18 March Villa Schifanoia, sala Triaria 17.00-19.00
Live video conference: Strangers, Gods and Monsters
with Richard Kearney (Department of Philosophy, Boston College) and participants in his seminar
Thursday, 11 April, Convento 14.00-17.00
Extraordinary Double Seminar in collaboration with Peter Becker's seminar "Normalising Diversity"
Neil Walker (IUE/LAW)
Setting Constitutional Boundaries:
The Role and Limits of Constitutionalism as a Tool of Inclusion and Exclusion
Jan Sokol (Prague)
Language Barriers in Europe from the Absolutist Era to Contemporary Politics
Monday, 6 May, Villa Schifanoia, sala Belvedere 11.00-13.00
Silvia Cresti (Siena)
"Kultur" and "Civilisation" after the Franco-Prussian War 1870/1871
A discussion between German and French Jews
Thursday, 23 May, Sala Belvedere 15.00-17.00
Robert Wokler (JMF)
Permits, Visas and the Paper Chase of Holocaust Victims and Survivors
Thursday, 30 May, Villa Schifanoia, sala Belvedere 15.00-17.00
Anthony D.Smith (London School of Economics and Political Science)
When is a Nation?
The Economy as a Polity European theoretical and historical perspectives
A seminar series at the Robert Schuman Centre, 2001-2002 organised by Christian Joerges (LAW), Bo Stråth (HEC) and Peter Wagner (SPS)
The relation of 'the economy' to other aspects of social life, in particular to 'politics', 'society' and 'culture', is a key theme of the social and historical sciences. It has been so ever since the argument for the beneficial logic of market exchange was raised in Europe in the eighteenth century and ever since laws about the freedom of commerce were introduced in European states, mostly during the nineteenth century. The very separation of economics from the other social sciences is an intellectual outcome of those interconnected legal, political and economic transformations and has persistently been raised as a problématique from Max Weber's time onwards.
In the current situation, 'globalisation' is often seen as the effective creation of a world market subjected to the laws of neo-classical economics. Political and legal regulation could then have only one of two purposes: either to facilitate the emergence of global market exchange or to deal with any undesired consequences of such exchange in a compensating fashion. If that were an appropriate analytical perspective, the intellectual controversies within and between the social sciences as well as the historical struggles over the political forms of modern societies, both of which characterised the past two centuries, would finally have been overcome.
In our view, however, any 'economic' theorising resides on presuppositions of legal and political philosophy and thus cannot achieve separation from those concerns. And any historically and empirically existing 'market' always shows analysable socio-cultural forms of what has been Ð somewhat infelicitously Ð called 'embeddedness'. The processes of European integration and 'Europeanisation' then, rather than merely modernising European political and economic life with a view to a global market era, are exactly the site at which issues of legal and political philosophy and of socio-cultural forms are at stake and re-emerge in a new guise.
The study of European integration and 'Europeanisation' is too narrowly conceived if it sees these processes as mere responses to globalisation processes driven by economic incentives and with a determined and rather limited range of adaptive possibilities. On the one hand, there is not just erosion of the politico-legal structures of the nation-state and of the socio-cultural forms of European 'life-worlds' due to 'globalisation', but rather a transformation of existing forms that entails creative-agential involvement of European actors. And on the other hand, a global market is as little self-sustaining as the markets of the nation-based economies have ever been. In politico-legal terms, transnational regimes and new patterns of juridification are emerging, and in socio-economic terms, the globalising transformations entail the development of new 'worlds of production' (Robert Salais and Michael Storper) that always have specific and often territorially based structures of networks and material engagement.
In this context, we propose to review some of the theoretical controversies about the political forms of market-based economic life Ð that is what we mean by proposing to see the economy as a polity Ð and to do so by means of a historical comparison of the current situation with European debates about the politico-legal embedding of the economy during the first half of the twentieth century, in particular during the inter-war period.
The seminar is thus intended to have a theoretical and historical axis, the interrelations of which are seen as twofold. First, a move beyond any futile continuation of abstractly discussing the relation between 'state' and 'market' has to provide a historical contextualisation to identify the specific issues at stake. And second, rather than proposing in any simplistic way that the inter-war debates and measures could provide Ð analytical or political Ð guidance for the present situation, we propose this historical comparison as a means to retrieve forms of conceptualising the economy as a polity. The few more detailed considerations that follow should be read in this light.
Tuesday, 30 October, Convento 15.00-19.00
John McCormic (New Haven), Habermas on the European Union: Normative Aspirations, Empirical Questions and Historical Presuppositions
Discussant: Peter Wagner (EUI)
Tuesday, 13 November, Convento 15.00-19.00
Philip Manow (Konstanz), Modell Deutschland as an Interdenominational Compromise
Discussant: Christian Joerges (EUI)
Thursday, 22 November, Convento 15.00-19.00
Robert Salais (Ecole normale supérieure de Cachan, Paris), The Subsidiarity Principle and the Social Dimension of Europe
Discussant: Karl-Heinz Ladeur (EUI)
Thursday, 6 December, Convento 15.00-19.00
Jürgen Neyer (EUI/Bremen), Governance in Non-hierarchical Multi-level Systems: Problemsolving Beyond the State
Comment: Jochen von Bernstorff (EUI ) (to be confirmed)
Thursday, 17 January, Convento 15.00-19.00
Marcella de Cecco (La Sapienza, Rome), and Roberto di Chirco (JMF-EUI), The Political Dimension of European Monetary Union
Thursday, 31 January Convento, 15.00-19.00
Johan Heilbron (Centre de sociologie européenne, Paris) and Colin Crouch (EUI), The Sociology of Economics and Finance
Thursday, 14 February, Convento 15.00-19.00
Milos Vec (Frankfurt a.M.), Technicity as Governance in Industrial Societies
Discussant: Peer Zumbansen (EUI/Frankfurt a.M.)
Writing History, A Collaborative Venture
European University Institute, Department of History and Civilisation
seminar of Bo Stråth
Mondays 11.00-13.00 in Sala Triaria, Villa Schifanoia
This seminar is based upon the premise that contemporary research in history should not be perused in solitude. The development of problem formulation, source selection, analysis, methodological approach and argumentation is often far more productive as a collective enterprise. Group reflection is an efficient means of achieving a critical distance which is decidedly different from that arrived at in individual work or even the hierarchic dialogue of a supervisor-researcher context.
Recent developments in historiography have drawn increased attention to the value of joint enterprises in theoretical and methodological reflection. The many challenges to "conventional" historiography have been central to this development. Examples of such challenges appear in the formulation of macro stories, problems related to historical narration, the temporality and contextuality of any historical writing, the expanding role of philosophical and value-oriented issues in historiography and the growing awareness of the importance of argumentation.
We maintain that no history should be composed and published without an awareness of these challenges and a willingness to confront them. This is not to propose that they can or should be approached from any specific theoretical or methodological point of departure. On the contrary they should be problematised and reflected upon from plural points of view which make the author aware of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in each individual approach. One additional long-term goal is also to promote an awareness of philosophic historiography.
In many respects this seminar is a continuation of the seminar Rewriting History in the academic year 1999-2000. The program of last year's Collaborative History seminar can be found in the archive. The form of publication of the papers on the web, one week prior to the session, and the opening of the session with discussants' criticism as well as their subsequent publication as a web debate will continue. It should be noted that active participation is open to all, this however, as the title implies, is connected not only with the presentation of a paper but also participation in the criticism of papers written by other seminar participants. The seminar is designed to offer researchers the opportunity to engage in a reflective process on how to rewrite history in their own work. This seminar will be augmented by an integrated workshop with the participation of external guests. One such parallel event at the Institute this year is the seminar Stranger. We invite both participants in the seminar as well as all others to contribute to the web-debate in our on-line magazine Collaborative History.
Remembering a Civil Car: How Victory Becomes Peace
Commemorative Activity in the Spanish Press on the Anniversaries of the Civil War
Paths towards Modernity, Intellectuals and the Contextualization of Socialism in the Balkans (pdf)
Discussant: Thomas Jørgensen
Citizenship and Discipline
English (if you have trouble reading French)
Discussant: Thomas Cayet
Travel as a National Discours
Comparing Conceptions and Perceptions of National Identity inTravel Writing:
London, Paris, Berlin, 1890-1939
Discussant: Philipp Müller
(NB: 9.30-13.00 Double Seminar followed by a joint lunch)
"Social" Space Matches "Symbolic" Space?
Gendered Regional and National Identities within a Heterogeneous Post-War Society
Discussants: Eirinn Larsen and Aidan O'Malley
Heim and the Unheimlich or Modernity: Visions of Nations and Home in Idyllic Landscapes
Heimat: Social and Symbolic Space
The Interplay between 'Regions' and 'Cultures', Discourses and Policies:
Polity and Market Making of the European Union
Discussant: Thomas Fetzer
Narrating Jewish Identity in Contemporary Britain, Italy and the Netherlands
(Two introductory. i.e. pre-research result, chapters are available to download:
one and two)
The Silence of Remembering: Fragments of an Introduction and Conclusions
Richard Kearney, DVD and Discussion
Video production of a seminar initiating the joint seminar Strangers, Gods and Daemons between Boston College and the IUE